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Table 1 Activities of catechins and their applications

From: Activity of catechins and their applications

Catechin activity Application References
Anti-oxidant activities Maximising the efficacy of anti-oxidants and catechins in new substances D’Urso et al. 2018, Gallego et al. 2017, Spizzirri et al. 2009, Nadim et al. 2014, Feng et al. 2014, Feng et al. 2013, Zhong and Shahidi 2011, Muhammad et al. 2014, Li and Seeram 2018, Choi et al. 2018, Shoko et al. 2018, Lima et al. 2016
UV protection Improve the stability of catechins in sunlight and increase the UV protection effect Zhang et al. 2016, Yoshino et al. 2013, Niu et al. 2017, Huang et al. 2007, Martincigh and Ollengo 2016, Parisi et al. 2012, Kim et al. 2012, Xia et al. 2005
Anti-microbial activities Demonstrates anti-microbial activity and develops pharmaceuticals and functional cosmetics de Oliveira et al. 2017, Aoshima et al. 2009, Goyal et al. 2017
Anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory activities Has an anti-allergenic component and anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity Ohmori et al. 1995, Marques et al. 2018, Foyet et al. 2015, Magalhães et al. 2009
Anti-viral activities Shows anti-influenza activity and interferes with cell infiltration and attachment of herpes simplex virus Ide et al. 2014, Cheng 2006
Anti-cancer activities Extract from Lawsonia inermis (Henna) can inhibit proliferation of cancer cells Kumar et al. 2016
Activation of skin barrier passage Various methods have enhanced the skin penetration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) anti-oxidants Puri et al. 2016, Zillich et al. 2013, dal Belo et al. 2009, Kadhum et al. 2017, Bombardelli 1991, Arct et al. 2002, Yang et al. 2015c, Wisuitiprot et al. 2011
Promoting cell activities Effective for low cytotoxicity and anti-melanin production and improves reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell viability and cell proliferation Kim et al. 2015, Kim et al. 2018
Sludge utilisation Anti-oxidant components were extracted from various sludge, suggesting that they could be developed into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals Aires et al. 2016, Magalhães et al. 2015, Reis et al. 2016, Kosińska et al. 2012, Arruda et al. 2017, Hernández-Hernández et al. 2018, Sharma et al. 2013, Demoliner et al. 2018, Oliveira et al. 2013
Stability Aspects exploited for improving stability include sunlight, oxidation, compound stability, and collagen stabilisation Scalia et al. 2013, Ferreira-Nunes et al. 2018, Jang et al. 2014, Bianchi et al. 2011, Madhan et al. 2005, Gallego et al. 2017
Relatively stable at low pH and the extraction efficiency of anti-oxidants was high Tsuchiya et al. 1997, Jang et al. 2014
Tissue biopsy culture model Demonstrated efficacy in vivo and vitro culture models Sidgwick et al. 2016, Ow and Stupans 2003, Yuki et al. 2013, Moulton et al. 2010
Safety for human applications In vivo experiments demonstrate safety Takahashi et al. 1999, Moulton et al. 2010
Anti-oxidant properties of catechins used for other applications Dyes, packaging materials, nanoparticles, and biocompatibility Im and Jeon 2016, Iñiguez-Franco et al. 2012, Kim 2011, Jeon et al. 2009, Rojas et al. 2005, Jackson et al. 2010
Synergistic effect by extraction method and process Chemical modification, molecular interaction mechanisms, hydrogen bonding, and nanoparticle treatment increase efficiency Ferreira-Nunes et al. 2017, Magalhães et al. 2016, Cruz et al. 2015, Yang et al. 2015a, Chen et al. 2010, Yang et al. 2015b, Niu et al. 2017, Klein et al. 2012, Skowyra et al. 2013, Arruda et al. 2019