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Table 1 Types and effects of antioxidant stabilizers with UV-B filter octylmethoxycinnamate

From: Antioxidants as stabilizers of UV filters: an example for the UV-B filter octylmethoxycinnamate

YearType of antioxidantsEffects as stabilizer of OMCReference
2003Vitamin E acetate and sodium ascorbyl phosphateThe bioconversion of antioxidant supplements improved sunscreen photoprotection (with OMC and avobenzone filters) by deactivation of the UV-induced ROS formation.Hanson and Clegg 2003
2006Piperidine nitroxide TEMPOLThe combination of OMC with the piperidine nitroxide TEMPOL reduced the UV-induced damage in the skin.Damiani et al. 2006a, 2006b
2006Vitamins C and EThe cosmetic formulation with TiO(2) and TiO(2):Mn particles, BMDM, OMC, and vitamins C and E increased the UV filter retention and reduced ROS formation.Wakefield and Stott 2006
2007RutinThe cosmetic formulation with OMC and rutin induced a synergistic effect in relation to the sun protection factor UV-A and UV-B.Velasco et al. 2008
2008Pyrrolidine nitroxideA novel ‘multi-active’ UV absorber, based on OMC, when combined with DHHB presented a concomitant reduction of UV-induced ROS damage.Venditti et al. 2008
2008Vitamins A, C, and EA formulation containing the combinations of vitamins A, C, and E with photostable UV filters (OMC, BP-3 and OC) reduced skin irritation.Gaspar and Campos 2007
2010Vitamins A and EThe photostabilizers DEHN and, particularly, BTDC influence the stability of OMC associated with vitamins A and E.Gaspar and Campos 2007
2010QuercetinLow concentration of quercetin significantly reduced the photodegradation of the UV-A and UV-B filter combination (BMDBM/OMC), reducing the UV-induced ROS formation without altering the performance of the sunscreen preparation.Scalia and Mezzena 2010
2015RES and BTCFormulations containing octocrylene, OMC, avobenzone, and bemotrizinole and supplemented with RES, BTC, or both compounds in combination improve the sunscreen safety by a reduction of delivery of UV filters into the stratum corneum and viable epidermis.Freitas et al. 2015
2016Rutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticlesRutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticles associated with UV filters, including OMC, increase 48% in SPF, evidencing a synergistic effect between nanoparticles and Oliveira et al. 2016a, 2016b
2016Gelatin-based nanoparticlesGelatin-based nanoparticles associated with UV filters, including OMC, are safe (in vivo and in vitro) and effective once they increase the antioxidant protection of the emulsions developed.Sde Oliveira et al. 2016a, 2016b
2016RutinRutin when applied to UV-B filters shows photoprotective gain (mainly UV-A) and has potential to eliminate ROS.Peres et al. 2016
2017Melatonin-loaded elastic niosomesAn emulsion formulated with melatonin-loaded elastic niosomes and OMC had a high antioxidant activity.Azizoglu et al. 2017
2017Melatonin and pumpkin seed oilA sunscreen formulation comprising avobenzone, OMC, oxybenzone, and titanium dioxide along with melatonin and pumpkin seed oil is nontoxic and safe in animal models, in a pre-clinical study.Bora et al. 2017