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Table 1 Summary of studies on induced mDA neuron differentiation from fibroblasts

From: Direct conversion from skin fibroblasts to functional dopaminergic neurons for biomedical application

Reference Dopamine neuron differentiation
Transcription factor miRNA Chemical Characteristics Functional test
Pfisterer et al. 2011 Ascl1, Brn2, Myt1l, Foxa2, and Lmx1a N/A N/A -16.43 ± 4.3% conversion efficiency to neuron
-Less than 10% of TH+ cells among neurons
-Electrophysiology
-Spontaneous action potentials and rebound action potentials are comparable with mDA neuron
Caiazzo et al. 2011 Ascl1, Nurr1, and Lmx1a N/A N/A -ICC TH+ (~ 5%), VMAT2, DAT, ALDH1A1, and calbindin
-Gene expression pattern
-Electrophysiology
-Spontaneous action potentials and rebound action potentials are comparable with mDA neuron
-HPLC:DA release
Kim et al. 2011 Ascl1 and Pitx3 N/A Shh + FGF in N3 media (N2 + bFGF) -ICC TH+ (~ 5%), Tuj, DAT, and AADC
-Gene expression pattern
-Electrophysiology
-HPLC:DA release
-About 50% recovery in amphetamine-induced rotation
-About 2000 TH+ cells in grafted with elevated dopamine level
Addis et al. 2011 Ascl1, Lmx1b, and Nurr1 N/A N/A -ICC 35.15% of Tuj1+
50.9 ± 3.3% of TH+ among Tuj1+ cells (18.2 ± 1.5% conversion rate)
-Gene expression pattern
-Electrophysiology
-HPLC:DA release
Jiang et al. 2015 Ascl1, Lmx1a, Nurr1, and p53 shRNA miR-124 Y27632/CHIR/VC/DM/SB/BDNF/PMN/NGF/GDNF/TGF-β -ICC 93.3 ± 1.6% of Tuj1+, 59.2 ± 3.7% TH+ -Electrophysiology
-HPLC:DA release